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Risk education shares

Investing in equities entails risks that you know and should be aware of. It is not a traditional investment, but a speculative investment with significant risks, up to the risk of total loss. Please read the following risk notices carefully and do not just skim over them.

1. What are stocks?

Shares are equity securities. They embody the participation in the assets of the corporation and, insofar as the voting rights are not excluded, also convey voting rights which include the right to participate in the shareholders’ meeting. A return is made if a dividend (profit sharing) is paid out and / or at the time of sale, a sales price in excess of the purchase price is achieved (price increase). No guarantee can be given for the return on investment in equities. An investment in shares is a risk investment.

2. Rights from shares

The rights and obligations of the shareholders are subject to the law to which the corporation is subject. They are determined by the laws of the country of incorporation or domicile and by the articles of association and any rules of procedure of the company. These laws may vary, so that the rights and duties of a shareholder in a German stock corporation may differ materially from those of a stockholder in a US corporation. Certain rights, such as subscription rights or voting rights, may also be excluded.

The most important rights are:

  • Right to any dividends in the case of profit distributions,
  • Right to purchase new shares in the case of capital increases,
  • Right to a share in the liquidation proceeds, i.e. in the distribution of the assets of the company in liquidation,
  • Right to attend the shareholders’ meeting,
  • Question and information right at a shareholders’ meeting,
  • Voting rights.

The share per share can be designed differently.

For bearer shares, the acquisition and possession of the share certificate is the proof of the stock corporation law. The share right is transferred by transfer of the deed. The right depends on the certificate.

For registered shares, the deed is issued in the name of the shareholder. Usually, the Company also maintains a shareholder register or register of shareholders in which the shareholder is registered. These shares are normally transferred by way of an assignment agreement and by a deed of the instrument.

In some cases, the transfer of shares may be subject to the approval of the Company (transfer) or otherwise limited.

In addition, the registered or bearer shares may be designed as so-called preference shares. The exact form of the preference is governed differently and depends on the legal system of the issuer. Common to all is that the preference shareholders to the “normal” shareholders a prerogative (so-called preference) is granted. This preference usually exists in a prerogative in the distribution of profits or in the distribution of liquidation proceeds in the event of insolvency. There are, depending on the legal system, but also other benefits possible. Some jurisdictions make it possible to exclude the voting right in the event of a preference, which under certain conditions can be revived.

In general, there is only one obligation of the shareholder, namely the payment of the subscription amount to the company. If the stock is fully paid, the ordinary investor shareholder has no further obligations.

3. The stock value

A distinction is made between nominal shares and no-par value shares or no-par-value shares. For nominal shares, the nominal value must not be confused with the actual value of the share. The face value is a symbolic value that can coincide at the beginning of the company and, coincidentally, later with the actual asset, price or market value of a share, but usually has nothing to do with it. For no-par value shares, this paper value is waived. The share represents in this case a fraction or a quota of the company assets.

4. Market significance

Equities will also differ according to their significance and position in the stock market.

Here are standard stocks (or “blue chips” called) to consider. These are usually the stocks of the leading and largest companies in the industry whose share price performance is often included in key stock indexes, which in turn are benchmarks for professional investors (e.g. fund managers). These papers are traded on a large scale. For them, there is almost always a liquid market where you can sell the papers. On the other hand, there are the ancillary or special stocks, which are mostly the stocks of smaller to very small companies, for which special markets were or will be created on the stock exchanges or which are not traded on a stock exchange at all.

5. Risks of the company (entrepreneurial risk), insolvency risk

The buyer of a share is the investor (investor).By acquiring the share, the investor participates in the economic development of the corporation, becoming a shareholder and thus a shareholder.

The entrepreneurial risk describes the danger that the development of the company is different than expected. An economic downfall of the Company will generally result in a severe decline in the value of the Company’s stock. In extreme cases, especially in the case of insolvency of the company, a stock investment becomes completely worthless.

In the event of liquidation of the Company or insolvency, the shareholders will be serviced by all other creditors of the Company. This may mean that the deposit can not be paid or only for a small fraction.

The risks of the company lie in the general economic development (economy) and the special situation of the enterprise, which can hold oneself better or worse than other enterprises in the market. These factors affect the value and thus the resale price of the share. This risk can be realized in case of very negative general or company-specific development up to total loss of the share value due to insolvency of the company. This risk is lower for the default values than for the minor or special values, but can not be ruled out.

6. Price change risk, risks of general conditions and market psychology

Stock prices have unpredictable fluctuations. Short-, medium- and long-term upward or downward movements alternate, without a firm connection for the duration of the individual phases to derive. The price change risk can be subdivided into the general market risk and the company-specific risk.

The general market risk of a stock is the risk of a price change attributable to the general tendency on the stock market, which is not directly related to the economic situation of the individual company. General conditions include the rate of inflation, the fixing of key interest rates and other economic factors that are positively or negatively processed by stock exchanges or any other generally accessible secondary market (resale market).

The market risk is subject to the shares of all companies. Thus, in parallel with the overall market, the share price of a company, even of standard shares, may fall on the stock market, even though the company’s economic situation has not deteriorated. For example, stock prices can fall by double-digit percentages across the board without any change in the substance or earning power of the company.

Fall in prices, even with standard stocks, from 30 to 40% within a relatively short time are quite possible. As part of the investment concept, no attempt is generally made to forecast and actively use market fluctuations. The assets are – as in the case of an investment company – regularly invested almost completely. Accordingly, the general market risk, for example in the event of stock market default, may affect the assets of the investor in full.

Company-specific risk refers to the risk of a decline in the price of a share due to factors that directly or indirectly affect the issuing company (see also above under “Business risk”). Causes of such share-specific price development may lie in the economic situation of the company, but may also result from general economic factors. A stock price only describes the daily relationship between supply and demand for this stock and does not necessarily match the business value of the stake in the company.

7. Country risk and rights of rights management, information risk

When acquiring foreign shares, the investor must be aware that he may be able to dispose of the selling price of the share in the case of a sale, possibly after a longer period of time or after a rewriting. If the investor acquires foreign shares or maintains his custody account abroad, he may be subject to capital transfer restrictions that make it impossible for him, for a shorter or longer period of time, to transfer dividends or proceeds from such securities out of the country concerned. This risk exists especially in countries where no politically stable conditions exist.

In addition, if the investor wishes to exercise his rights towards the company, he will operate in a foreign jurisdiction and possibly in a foreign language. He may need to use foreign lawyers and courts. This is associated with additional costs and difficulties.

Similarly, it is often more difficult for an investor to obtain the information about foreign stocks. Announcements about general meetings, dividends, etc. are often not published for these shares in the newspapers in the investor’s country of residence. Incomplete, obsolete or missing information can lead to wrong decisions by the investor. Likewise, the evaluation of too much or too little information can lead to errors.

8. Currency risk

Foreign stocks often represent a value in foreign currency. In addition to the risks inherent in the share, the investor also bears the currency risk. Losses may arise or increase solely from the fact that the equity currency is deteriorating against the domestic currency.

9. Risk of delisting

For shares traded on a stock exchange or other generally accessible secondary market (resale market), there is a risk of suspension of trading or even delisting. While in the case of suspension trading is only temporary, delisting permanently removes the company from trading so that the shares can no longer be traded on the stock exchange or another generally accessible secondary market.

10. Liquidity risk

The liquidity of an investment means the possibility of selling it at market prices. Sufficient liquidity is assumed if an investor can sell his investment at any time in a market, without this leading to any noticeable price changes.

Liquidity risk is understood to mean the risk that the investor does not have to sell his investment at the desired time and / or in the desired amount and / or only at considerable markdowns from the market value or does not find a buyer at all.

This risk also often exists with small caps, even when traded on a stock exchange or other publicly available secondary market. The circle of interested parties is often so small that the sale of such shares – if at all – is possible only under bad conditions. In addition, those stocks that have only a narrow market are more prone to price manipulation. In that regard, reference is also made in particular to the comments under item 21. “Risk of price and market determination in narrow markets (over-the-counter markets)”.

11. Risk in a credit-financed investment

Shares are speculative investments. The capital used for acquisition should therefore only be raised by free financial means. Debt financing is not responsible. The Shares are not an appropriate security for borrowing. However, should the investor take out a loan to finance the purchase of shares despite this warning, he must expect that he will not only lose part or all of his investment In addition, the interest and the cost of debt financing must be reduced by the amount of the credit of this amount from other sources of income. The risk of a credit-financed investment in shares thus goes beyond the risk of total loss. Unless the loan, interest and borrowing costs can be derived from other sources of income, there is a risk of personal bankruptcy.

In addition, debt financing often results in losses often exceeding the lending limit for these stocks, requiring the lender to provide additional collateral, or restoring the permissible loan-to-value ratio through forced sale of the stocks at the most unfavourable time.

12. Risk of transaction costs

Transactions (including commissions, fees, brokerage fees, capital taxes) increase the purchase price and reduce the selling price. They reduce the chance of winning and increase the risk of loss. If you trade in the short term, i.e., redeploying your deposit frequently, such costs can not only diminish the odds of winning, but even completely eliminate them, since the accumulation of such transaction costs can completely consume future market profits.

13. Tax and legal risks

The tax treatment of his investment must be clarified by the investor himself. He can not be sure that tax benefits will accrue to him from the execution of the investments. He also has to expect that tax and legal conditions will change. This can also be done during the duration of an investment.

14. Dividend risk

The dividend paid on a share depends heavily on the profits of the company. In low-income years, only a small or no dividend can be paid. The payment of a dividend will be decided every year, so an earlier payment will not guarantee the continued payment of dividends. Even with good performance, this does not necessarily mean an increased dividend.

15. Risk of tracing for protection against loss of assets and voting rights

As part of a capital increase, a stock corporation may issue new shares. Shareholders generally have a subscription right in this case, unless this has been ruled out. By issuing new shares, an existing shareholder must, in exercising his subscription right, subscribe for new shares in proportion to his previous share in the company in order to maintain his former share in the corporation and thus the ratio of his profit share and voting rights. If the existing shareholder has no subscription right or is excluded because of the shares he holds, the existing shareholder must purchase the corresponding number of subscription rights or subscribe for the newly issued shares in order to maintain the ratio of his interest and voting rights. The subscription of shares in the exercise of subscription rights, the subscription of new shares or the purchase of subscription rights entail a renewed capital expenditure on the part of the investor. If the existing shareholder does not provide this renewed capital expenditure, his share in the corporation and thus also the ratio of his profit share and his voting rights will be reduced.

16. Inflation risk

The inflation risk describes the risk of devaluation (reduction of the purchasing power of the investment) during the life of the investment. A depreciation during the life of the investment occurs whenever the inflation rate is higher than the income generated by the investment.

17. Price risk

The stock price of shares traded on the stock exchange or other generally accessible secondary market (resale market) is usually determined several times a day, so there is a risk that the purchase price between the placement of the order and the purchase price will be significantly higher for the acquirer. The same applies in the case of a sale.

18. Transmission risk

Orders must be clear and unambiguous. Unclear and incomplete information may lead to an erroneous execution of the order for the purchase of shares or even result in the order being executed late or not.

19. Stock split

There may also be a so-called stock split, especially for US equities. This is an equity split by a higher number of shares is achieved by a “split” of the shares. In the case of a stock split of 1 to 10, for example, a shareholder who owns one share receives ten additional shares without consideration. However, this is not an issue of bonus shares, as there is a nominal value reduction of the nominal value according to the split ratio. With a € 50,- share the nominal value would be only € 5,-. As a result, the price of the individual share is reduced as a rule.

20. Special risks US Mid Caps

These stocks are subject to all of the above risks. But there are also special risk factors to consider.

20.1. US supervisory rules

In the US, the rule is that all companies offering shares publicly are required to report to the Securities and Exchange Commission (“reporting companies”).Regular annual statements and a wealth of additional information must be submitted. In addition, significant changes within the company must be communicated. Furthermore, the public offering of a share in the US must also be registered with the SEC (registered securities).This registration contains the key investor information about the issue and the issuer. Any information can be obtained from this authority. They are accessible via the Internet.

20.2. Blank check stocks, penny stocks and companies in the development stage

US legislation has two types of companies or emissions that deserve special attention:
Blank check-offers. These are offers in which the issuer does not submit a specific business plan or the plan is to merge or acquire such a company with an unspecified company.
Development Stage Company. These are young companies that are just starting their business or whose business operations are still not generating significant revenues. Closely associated with such companies is the term “penny stocks”. These are equities that are not traded on a US national stock exchange whose net selling price (not face value), i.e. excluding transaction costs, is less than US $ 5.

20.3. Exceptions to the registration requirement

Of the registration and reporting obligations, there are two major exceptions for German investors:

20.3.1. Reduced emissions requirements up to US $ 1 million

It is not necessary for the Issuer to comply with the requirements for a normal registration of the issue with the SEC for the first public offering or public offering of a company’s issues up to a total of US $ 1 million. The Issuer does not have to report to the SEC. For such offers, therefore, less and not verified by the SEC information is available.

However, this exemption is not available for blank check issuances and for companies in the development stage.

20.3.2. Regulation S – Stocks

The second major exception to the registration requirement and, where applicable, the issuer’s reporting requirements are sales of non US equities that meet certain conditions. (So-called Regulations S or Reg S shares). The offer must not be addressed to US persons, i.e. in principle to persons resident in the US. For a period of 12 months, the stock may not be sold to the United States. The buyer must assure that he is not a US person. He must agree to resell the shares only in accordance with these rules. The share certificates must bear the imprint that their transfer is illegal, except in accordance with Regulation S. The issuer must refuse the transfer of an unduly transferred share.

This means that such shares can not be sold in the United States for one year, and above all can not be introduced to US stock exchanges or markets without prior registration with the SEC. This also applies to the over-the-counter and OTC markets mentioned below. At the same time, this means that they can not be introduced on another exchange if there is a risk that they may fall into the hands of the US public before the waiting period expires.

20.3.3. US Securities Markets

In the US, the securities markets are divided into two large groups:

  • Exchanges (including NASDAQ National Market and SmallCap Market)
  • OTC (OTC, over-the-counter markets).

When trading in small caps on the stock exchanges, the general risks for small caps in narrow markets described above apply. In the so-called OTC markets, however, these risks are exacerbated.
The most important OTC markets in the US are

  • the Bulletin Board of NASDAQ
  • the Pink Sheets (Pink Pages) of the National Quotation Bureau, Inc.

The bulletin board is a computer platform for US broker-dealers, where buying and selling prices are quoted and closing prices are quoted. Most of the trade itself takes place over the telephone. Since mid-1999, prices may only be quoted and quoted on the Bulletin Board for companies that report to and are required to report to the SEC or another supervisor. This ensures that these companies provide the investor with the most important information about the company.

The Pink Sheets, which are released on a weekly basis, will quote or disclose prices for those shares that are unable to qualify for trading or listing on a stock exchange or bulletin board. The trade takes place by telephone, more recently probably also via Internet or other communication media.

21. Risk of price and market discovery in narrow markets (over-the-counter markets)

Common to all the over-the-counter markets is that pricing is heavily influenced by the activities of certain broker-dealers (securities trading institutions) who act as market makers, i.e. have informed the organizers (NASDAQ, NQB) that they are particularly concerned about this paper and certain obligations with regard to these papers. In many cases, a stock has only a single market maker, and this is also the only interested party in case the investor wants to sell the stock he has bought. The market makers usually act as proprietary traders. They do not buy and sell the shares on behalf of another client as a broker, but on their own account as a dealer.

The prices are set by them at their own discretion and in their own interest. Here, their remuneration is in the range between the purchase price and the selling price. This range is not as low as in liquid markets, but can be extremely high. Under the same market conditions, i.e. at the same time, the purchase price (in the case of a buyback from the investor) may well be only half the selling price at which the stock is offered to the investors on the market. This equates to a discount of 50% on the selling price and a premium of 100% on the purchase price, without any changes in the market price, income value or asset value of the share.

The absence of a normal supply and demand situation or a general interest and the consequent influence of a few persons on the prices gives the possibility and increases the likelihood of manipulation of the prices to the detriment, in particular, of foreign investors. Such quotations or pricing have little or nothing to do with stock market prices or fair market prices resulting from a normal supply and demand situation.
These problems exist even if there are several market makers for the papers. The prices are then no prices, which are produced by a normal supply and demand situation, but discretionary prices of these dealers, which are provided in their own interest. When quoting prices in these markets, it should also be noted that they are only prices quoted, i.e. prices which are not based on any financial statements or which do not lead to any financial statements or the prices of actual financial statements.

The investor risks to acquire such securities at high arbitrage prices if actively marketed, but these prices as soon as the interest of those responsible for the issue or their distribution and the previous market maker or the previous market makers in the course care, collapse and destroy the alleged deposit value on paper .In these cases, the previous market makers regularly also formally give up their function as market makers, which is possible at any time. In practical terms, the investor has to accept a financial loss in such cases. This risk applies in particular to the above-mentioned blanks or companies in the development stage.

Among the large number of securities offered, there may also be companies that have a sound business and that transform the capital provided by the shareholders into a corresponding asset or reasonable business prospects. The non-professional private investor, who can only partially use the information provided by the SEC’s Reportable Companies Database, relies on coincidence or the advice of competent financial services providers who have analysed the company. However, such advice is only worth something if the advisor is independent of the issuer.
These risks of the price range, which only have to be reflected by a positive development of the company, which must be reflected in the future share price repurchase price, then come from the negative effects of the cost of procurement (agio, commissions), which causes the sales and not the business of the company ,As mentioned above, as in the price range, this is an immediate expense (loss of net assets) of the investor, which must first be compensated by the income or increase in value of a stock before the investment turns out to be positive for the investor.

22. Unavoidability of the aforementioned risks

The aforementioned risks exist in any case. They can not be reduced or avoided. These risks can not be ruled out. If someone tells you otherwise, this is not correct.


Risk education in futures trading

The following is a risk assessment. It covers only a limited representation of the economic basis, modes of action and mechanisms of futures trading, as far as this is necessary for an understanding of the risks. An investor intending to invest in forward exchange transactions must, due to the considerable risk involved in such transactions, have extensive and in-depth knowledge of the associated economic fundamentals, mechanisms and mechanisms, or familiarize himself in advance with them from other sources.

I. Special risks of an investment in a stock market

1. General market or speculative risks

When someone enters into futures and / or options transactions, he takes great risks that he needs to know in order to make a sound decision. These risks arise from the highly speculative nature of these transactions and from the freely negotiable expenses for the use of third parties in the course of executing the transactions. The limited-term rights acquired in forward exchange transactions (hereinafter also referred to as “forward transactions”) may lapse (risk of total loss) or suffer an impairment. This is not an exception, but on balance even occurs predominantly. This means that futures are not conventional investments but highly speculative transactions. The risk of loss in the case of purchased options consists of the option premium paid and the costs incurred (total loss of the investment amount).

For other futures and forex options, the risk of loss may not be determinable and may go well beyond any collateral and capital employed. Additional collateral may then be required. If the investor fails to do so upon request, he must expect an immediate closure of his open forward transactions and the immediate realization of the collateral already provided. The resulting losses can lead to additional indebtedness and thus also affect other assets, without the risk of loss being able to be determined in advance. This can also attack assets that were not invested directly in the forward transaction.

2. Risk of leverage

The speculator must be aware of his risk and ready to take on risk. The speculator uses as margin or premium a comparatively small sum in relation to the forward rates (about 5% – 20% of the item price) and thus also to the possible price fluctuations. This gives the bet a high leverage effect on both the profit and the loss side as the price changes relative to the margin / premium have a major impact. In the case of option purchase, the speculator may lose his entire stake. For other futures, he can lose much more than his bet.

3. Bulletins, margin risk
3.1. Margin

The margin (initial or original margin) is an amount of money the investor pays to the intermediary or broker in the event that the price of a commitment is in an appointment or, in the case of options, in a writer’s position against him and when the engagement is closed Loss would be realized. If it comes to a neutral or profit position, this amount is of course available to the customer again.

The minimum margin that the broker has to charge the investor with the forward transaction is determined by the stock exchange. However, the broker is empowered – and most brokers do – to increase the margin they charge from the client for their own safety. As already stated, the margin is usually in the range of 5% – 20% of the price of the deadline item. However, the stock exchange and the brokers are entitled to unilaterally increase the margin amount if the term of the item is higher. Unrealized gains in a commitment may also be used to cover that margin requirement.

3.2. Additional payment

If the margin is tied up by unrealized losses on exposure, the amount available to cover future losses will decrease. If a certain margin (maintenance margin) is undercut, the broker must demand a so-called margin of variation. The investor must replenish the cover to the original margin with new capital. However, he only has to do this in his own interest. He is not obliged to do so.

For some contracts, the unrealized losses are debited to the customer’s account daily and must be replenished immediately, without any additional margin. If the investor omits the additional margin or the loss compensation, the broker is entitled, but not obliged, to compulsorily liquidate the position of the customer with underfunding so that full cover is again established. This can lead to the customer being unilaterally thrown out of the market by the broker and realizing losses.

Without re-engagement, he will no longer be able to participate in potentially beneficial market developments. Some guidebooks recommend never to meet margin calls, but in any case, at the latest, to withdraw from the market to limit losses.

4. Risks of supply

In the event of the execution of a forward transaction and the delivery of the cash commodity, the then applicable conditions of the cash market must be observed. Here a resale of the goods can be very difficult and possible at high cost. In addition, storage costs or the costs of custody may be incurred up to a resale.

5. Risks of delivery

If the investor is obliged to deliver from a futures contract without being able to dispose of or secure himself accordingly on the market, he must stock up on the market at the then existing conditions in order to fulfil his delivery obligation. The associated costs are incurred in addition to the actual exchange futures transaction and can go far beyond this.

6. Risks of business expenses

Forward transactions can not be concluded directly by private participants. They use other service companies (banks, brokers, intermediaries).The activity of these service companies is not in vain. These transaction costs (mostly surcharges and commissions) accrue at or near the time of the listing and have a material adverse effect on the financial result of such transactions. They affect the chances of winning, since they only have to be earned back by a corresponding price development in favour of the investor in the market. However, stock market trading, whose estimates determine the price formation on the stock exchanges and futures markets, does not consider such transaction costs for private speculators. In the price formation on the markets, opportunity and risk are only reflected in a form that is still acceptable for the professional trade. Therefore, the higher the costs incurred on or next to the exchange, the lower, and therefore no longer justifiable, becomes a per-balance gain.

Remunerations, premiums and commissions on or near the stock market stake of 5% or more are so high that a chance of winning for the total speculation (per-balance chance of winning) no longer exists. They affect the chances of winning, since they would have to be earned back only by a corresponding price development, which is completely unlikely or even impossible with such an order of magnitude. After all, stock market trading, whose assessment determines price formation on the stock exchanges and futures markets, does not consider such high transaction or ancillary costs. In the price formation in the markets, the opportunities and risks are only reflected in a form that is still acceptable for the professional trade. With such a high remuneration, profits are a coincidence on balance.

7. Increasing the risk of first loss

If there is a first loss of the stake, an extremely high price movement of the starting price of a futures transaction is necessary in order to reach only the financial starting point again. It is unlikely that such price movements will occur during the life of these transactions. With further losses and follow-on trades, the market movements required to achieve a positive outcome can potentiate to levels that not only exclude a positive outcome at the end of speculation but inevitably lead to final losses. In the case of initial losses, this is generally assumed to be a definitive loss.

8. Increasing the risk due to high business activity

Transaction costs can be absolutely too high in relation to the market use or relatively because of too frequent, economically pointless entry and exit to and from the shops (commissions drifting, “Churning”).

This may be due to a one-sided consultation of the client with preference to the commission interests of the adviser, who receives a share of the commissions. However, it may also be that, for example, loss-mitigation measures are too short of the expected fluctuation range of prices for the business (e.g. stop-orders, see point 1.10.).This can lead to a hectic entry and exit, with the result of an ever-new accumulation of costs, which then eat up the operation, without significant losses due to market changes occurred. This effect is reinforced with low option premiums, because then the advisory and transaction costs in relation are particularly high. Profit opportunities are excluded in such cases, losses pre-programmed by transaction costs.

9. Spread or combination transactions

So-called spread or combination transactions are not necessarily less risky than individual positions.

9.1. Spread or combination transactions in futures

Not only cash and forward prices have a margin (basis) against each other, which can be normal or abnormal, but also the forward prices deviate from each other, for example forward prices of different months in the same commodity, the forward prices of different commodities, but among themselves in one economic relationship (substitution effect), the forward prices of starting and end products (crude oil, gasoline and heating oil), the forward prices on different exchanges on which the same commodity is traded. Also, this relationship seeks to exploit speculators by speculating on a change in this spread between two forward prices.

Normally the spread is considered less dangerous than a simple position, because it is assumed that the difference between different forward prices, as well as the basis (difference between forward price and spot price), will not change beyond certain limits and thus the price ratio remains calculable. This is especially true of normal markets. If the remoter forward price were to rise higher than justify the cost of holding the goods, speculators, arbitrageurs, would buy the goods themselves, store them and sell them at a profit on time. However, this is not true in reverse markets, where futures prices are in unusual proportions. There are theoretically no limits to this difference.

Therefore, it must be warned against assessing the risk of a spread transaction less. In some cases it can be as big as the risk of a simple position or twice as large. Nevertheless, spreads on spreads are usually lower than single-item bullion. Of course, the financial risk is no less, even if correspondingly more spread positions are built up due to the lower margin. Their losses then add up to the same sizes as with smaller simple positions. Spreads between different dates are traded on some exchanges as special positions independent of the single positions. You can open or close spreads as such and you do not have to open or close the two individual transactions individually.

One speaks of a bull, buy or forward spread, when the early month is bought and the remoter month is sold. Here it is speculated that the margin between the two months narrows (basically in the normal market with rising prices). The bear, sell or reverse spread is the reverse combination, the early date is sold and the remainder is bought. The speculator hopes that the spread will increase (basically in the normal market at falling prices).

9.2. Option spreads and straddles

The option spread is equal to the spread in the forward contract, in that the speculator is both a buyer of an option and a seller of the same option but at different base prices. The bullish call spread combines the purchase of a lower strike option (higher premium) with the purchase of a higher strike option (lower premium). The downside sell option spread combines the purchase of a sell option with a higher strike price with the sale of a sell option with a lower strike price. For both, the chance of winning is limited to the difference between the base prices and the risk of loss to the difference between the premium paid and the premium received.

A straddle is a double option, i.e. the speculator buys or the writer at the same time sells a buy and a sell option at the same strike price with the same term. The buyer of the straddle has double premium and transaction costs, but receives chances to win in both directions.

10. Risk of Missing Risk Exclusion and Restriction Option

Businesses that are supposed to exclude or limit risks arising from the deadlines they have received may not be able to do so, or only at a loss-making market price. This applies in particular to so-called loss limitation orders (stop orders).

Orders, Stop Loss Technique

Orders to the intermediary or broker to carry out a business are permitted in any form, as long as they are formulated completely and understandably. Minimal details for an order are: buying or selling, with an option in addition, whether put or call, the contract object (commodity, financial title, currency etc.), number of contracts or trading place or the stock exchange, on which the business is to be executed, the Date of the month, the strike or strike price, the price or price, and the duration of the order. Because the business is a fast business, a jargon has emerged which briefly expresses these essential characteristics of an order (best, cheapest, market, limit, stop, stop limit, etc.).Anyone who uses this jargon must familiarize themselves with it in detail. These are practices of the industry. Who understands them wrong, must bear the consequences.

So-called stop orders, i.e. orders that are to be executed when a certain price or price is reached, do not protect against losses. Upon reaching the course, they become so-called market orders that are executed optimally or cheaply. The customer is thus quite exposed to a risk of loss beyond the stop-over. If, in addition, stop-loss prices are set too close to the entry price, the customer must expect that his position will be closed more frequently than necessary and that correspondingly more commissions will be incurred.

The purpose of loss avoidance in the market turns into the opposite of loss production through excessive transaction costs. Not every stock exchange or broker is prepared to accept complicated orders, especially certain forms of conditional orders, as this sometimes requires extensive monitoring of the account. The customer should always clarify in advance for failed orders, whether the order is accepted in this form at all.

11. Peculiarities of forward currency transactions with equities as an underlying

Exchange forwards with shares as underlying are subject to specific risks in addition to the risks mentioned above. It should be remembered that it always refers to a particular stock. Therefore, as with transactions in physical shares, the data of the shares and their income (dividends) must be taken into account. It is worth considering whether it is only a secondary value or a default value. Furthermore, the company data of the corporation and its development have to be considered. Here, messages that affect the company can have lasting effects on the option. The pricing of the stock option is determined to a large extent by the pricing of the respective stock. In the event of a change in the share price, disproportionate changes in the option price may occur. In particular, the so-called stock splitting also has an effect on existing stock options, as these are adjusted in the number of options to the splitting made.

The investor must also be aware that, for example, when exercising a purchase option, he can also acquire the physical shares. Here, a sale of the shares due to a narrow market can be difficult and possible with loss. Small caps in particular can be problematic because there is often no liquid market there. Again, this requires familiarizing yourself with the circumstances of the stock and the markets in which it is traded. In particular, the following points should be considered: Corporate risk credit risk, price risk Liquidity risk, psychological market risk, the economic risk, the dividend risk, the country risk due to the specific characteristics of the country of incorporation of the stock corporation and the effects of a share split. An investor wishing to undertake this type of futures transaction must therefore also become familiar with the risks of investing in equities. A corresponding risk education can be obtained on request.

II. General risks of investing in futures

1. Transmission risk

Orders must be clear and unambiguous. Unclear and incomplete information may lead to an erroneous execution of the order for the purchase of shares or even result in the order being executed late or not.

2. Price change risk after placing the order

The price is determined several times a day on the stock exchange, so that there is a risk that the purchase price between the order placement and the execution relevant for the purchase price can be considerably disadvantageous for the purchaser. The same applies in the case of the sale.

3. Risks from the contracting parties

In the case of foreign brokers, the cost-bearing institution through which the transactions are executed and where the client’s account is kept may be located abroad. The contracts may be subject to foreign jurisdictions and legal action may be taken abroad. In the event of a dispute, it may therefore be difficult and costly for the investor to enforce his rights against the account-holding institution or broker. The possibility of enforcing mandatory rules for the protection of the customer in the investor’s home law is unlikely to exist. Also a judgment of a domestic court would have to be enforced abroad.

4. Transfer risk

If the investor maintains his custody account abroad, he may be subject to capital transfer restrictions that make it impossible for him to transfer proceeds of sale from the country concerned for shorter or longer periods of time. This risk exists especially in countries where no politically stable conditions exist.

5. Currency risk

The risk of loss increases if the obligation of futures or the consideration to be claimed is denominated in foreign currency or unit of account and the investor has made use of it in domestic currency as the foreign currency or unit of account may lose value against the domestic currency. Losses may arise or increase solely because the foreign currency or unit of account is deteriorating against the domestic currency.

6. Inflation risk

The inflation risk describes the risk of devaluation (reduction of the purchasing power of the investment) during the life of the investment. A depreciation during the life of the investment occurs whenever the inflation rate is higher than the income generated by the investment.

7. Debt financing risk

Futures are speculative investments. The capital used for acquisition should therefore only be raised by free means. Debt financing is not responsible. Futures contracts are not an appropriate collateral for borrowing. However, if you borrow against this warning to finance the purchase of shares, you must expect that if you lose some or all of your investment, you will not just get the loan from other sources of income, but also the interest and the cost of debt financing. The risk of a credit-financed investment in forward transactions thus goes beyond the risk of total loss. If the loan, as well as the interest and costs of the debt financing can not be reduced from other income sources, there is the risk of a private insolvency. In addition, loan financing often results in losses that often exceed the mortgage lending limit, so that the lender calls for additional collateral, or restores the permissible loan-to-value ratio through a forced sale at the most unfavourable time.

8. Tax and legal risks

The tax treatment of his investment must be clarified by the investor himself. He can not be sure that tax benefits will accrue to him from the execution of the investments. He also has to expect that tax and legal conditions will change. This can also be done during the life of a plant.

9. Unavoidability of the aforementioned risks

The aforementioned risks exist in any case. They can not be reduced or avoided. These risks can not be ruled out. If someone tells you otherwise, this is not correct.


Special risks in short-term trading (daily and overnight transactions)

You can also carry out forward transactions and other stock exchange transactions in the custody account provided to you so that often only short-term market participation takes place. This can be done in the form of day trades (day trades) or overnight trades (over-night trades) (so-called day trading or day trading).

In daily business, market positions are often taken only at very short notice. In day trades, an opened position is closed on the same day. Here it may be the case that a corresponding position within a trading day, in the same market several times opened (bought) and closed (sold) is (so-called “intra day trading”).

In the case of over-night trades, acquired positions are closed again the very next day, whereby the risk is increased by the “overnight stay” of the open position. We can only arrange your order during our office hours. Therefore, during the night you can not react to course-determining events with suitable measures. However, you can always have your order executed directly through the broker.
With day trading, unexpectedly small and short-term price fluctuations can be sufficient to bring about a total loss within a very short time, i.e. the immediate loss of all your day-trading capital.

When calculating the risks, the so-called transaction costs have to be taken into account in addition to the market risks. These are any stock exchange fees for the execution of the business, the fees or commissions of the account-holding institute and the commissions of other financial service providers, i.e. also our brokerage commissions, which are already included in the commissions of the account-holding institute.

Due to the regular daily acquisition of futures and / or options contracts, you usually make a complete daily shift of your portfolio. This may result in a disproportionate number of transactions in your securities account. The associated costs – which are incurred per contract purchase – may be disproportionately high in relation to capital employed and market movements. This cost burden can result in your capital being consumed solely by the costs (commissions) incurred.

This is particularly the case when the market has no or only small fluctuations in price, so that when a position is closed, the proceeds do not cover the costs or the loss consists solely or predominantly in the costs.
Favourable market conditions will only be gains if the price movement (premiums of the options or the price of the forward contracts) has exceeded the amount of your costs. However, since you trade very quickly, these price movements will always be limited. Therefore, a very accurate calculation is necessary to determine the correct entry and exit points that will allow you to exploit price movements that exceed the costs.

However, this costing is not enough. You must not assume that you are always on the right side of the market. The market risk means that the price of your positions does not move, or may even develop against you, and you must then liquidate these positions at a loss.
Here, too, you must determine the correct exit time beforehand. If you do not do so, the losses caused by both costs and negative market movements can consume all your speculative capital in a very short time. This risk is exacerbated when investing in assets that are expected to become highly volatile within one day, i.e. high price volatility.

With your transaction revenue, you not only have to absorb the costs of these transactions, but also the losses along with the costs for previous transactions, before you can record a positive result for yourself on balance. This may prove impossible if you suffer initial losses.

For these reasons, you must have in-depth knowledge of securities markets, securities trading techniques, securities trading strategies and derivative financial instruments, in particular for short-term trading (day trading).All the more so since you are competing in the field of short-term trading (day trading) especially with professional and financially strong market participants.

Of course, the other risks of futures transactions must be observed! It should be emphasized once again that such transactions should not be fully or even partially financed with loans taken out. The obligation to repay the loan and any additional interest accrues regardless of the success of the business. Furthermore, the risk of raising additional capital must be taken into account in case the loss incurred exceeds the collateral (for futures contracts).